# Hubert Bray

- Professor of Mathematics
- Professor in the Department of Physics (Secondary)

**External address:**189 Physics Bldg, Durham, NC 27710

**Internal office address:**Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708-0320

**Phone:**(919) 757-8428

**Office Hours:**

Mondays, 4:30 - 6:30 p.m.

### Research Areas and Keywords

##### Geometry: Differential & Algebraic

##### Mathematical Physics

Professor Bray uses differential geometry to understand general relativity, and general relativity to motivate interesting problems in differential geometry. In 2001, he published his proof of the Riemannian Penrose Conjecture about the mass of black holes using geometric ideas related to minimal surfaces, scalar curvature, conformal geometry, geometric flows, and harmonic functions. He is also interested in the large-scale unexplained curvature of the universe, otherwise known as dark matter, which makes up most of the mass of galaxies. Professor Bray has proposed geometric explanations for dark matter which he calls "wave dark matter," which motivate very interesting questions about geometric partial differential equations.

Professor Bray has supervised 8 math Ph.D. graduates at Duke from 2006 to 2017. He is currently supervising one math Ph.D. student and one physics Ph.D. student. His most recent Ph.D. graduate, Henri Roesch, proved a Null Penrose Conjecture, open since 1973, as his thesis. While the physical motivation about the mass of black holes is the same as for the Riemannian Penrose Conjecture, the geometry involved is almost unrecognizably different, and may be viewed as a fundamental result about null geometry.

Bray, HL, and Khuri, MA. "P. D. E. 'S which imply the penrose conjecture." *Asian Journal of Mathematics* 15.4 (January 1, 2011): 557-610.
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Bray, H, Brendle, S, Eichmair, M, and Neves, A. "Area-Minimizing Projective Planes in 3-Manifolds." *Communications on Pure and Applied Mathematics* 63.9 (September 1, 2010): 1237-1247.
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Bray, HL, and Khuri, MA. "A jang equation approach to the penrose inequality." *Discrete and Continuous Dynamical Systems* 27.2 (June 1, 2010): 741-766.
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Bray, H, Brendle, S, and Neves, A. "Rigidity of area-minimizing two-spheres in three-manifolds." *Communications in Analysis and Geometry* 18.4 (January 1, 2010): 821-830.
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Bray, HL, and Lee, DA. "On the Riemannian Penrose inequality in dimensions less than eight." *Duke Mathematical Journal* 148.1 (May 2009): 81-106.
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Bray, H, and Miao, P. "On the capacity of surfaces in manifolds with nonnegative scalar curvature." *Inventiones Mathematicae* 172.3 (June 1, 2008): 459-475.
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Bray, H, Hayward, S, Mars, M, and Simon, W. "Generalized inverse mean curvature flows in spacetime." *Communications in Mathematical Physics* 272.1 (May 1, 2007): 119-138.
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Bray, HL, and Neves, A. "Classification of Prime 3-Manifolds with Yamabe Invariant Greater than RP^3." *Annals of Mathematics* 159.1 (January 2004): 407-424.

Bray, HL, and Iga, K. "Superharmonic functions in $\mathbf{R}^n$ and the Penrose inequality in general relativity." *Communications in Analysis and Geometry* 10.5 (2002): 999-1016.
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Bray, HL. "Black Holes, Geometric Flows, and the Penrose Inequality in General Relativity." *Notices of the American Mathematical Society* 49.11 (2002): 1372-1381. (Academic Article)