Imaging Changes and Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Active Monitoring for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Seven-Year Follow-up Study.


Nguyen, DL; Shelley Hwang, E; Ryser, MD; Grimm, LJ


RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the imaging changes and their associated positive predictive value (PPV) for invasive breast cancer in women undergoing active monitoring for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this seven-year follow-up retrospective IRB-exempted cohort study, we reviewed patients diagnosed with DCIS who elected active monitoring between 2003 and 2022 at a single academic institution. Imaging characteristics, histopathology at initial diagnosis, and subsequent follow-up were recorded. Low-risk DCIS was defined as low or intermediate grade and hormone receptor (HR) positive (estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive) disease diagnosed in women at least 40 years of age. Progression was defined as subsequent ipsilateral invasive breast cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: There were 39 patients with a median age of 58.4 years (IQR: 51.1-69.6 years) and a median follow-up of 4.3 years (range: 0.6-16.4 years). Nearly two thirds of patients (64%, 25/39) had stable imaging (range: 0.6-16.4 years) and remained progression-free during active monitoring. Among the remaining 14 patients (36%), there were 24 imaging findings which prompted 22 subsequent core needle biopsies (range: 1-3 biopsies per patient) and two surgical biopsies. The PPV of invasive cancer was 29% (7/24) overall and 38% (3/8) for masses, 33% (3/9) for calcifications, 17% (1/6) for non-mass enhancement, and 0% (0/1) for architectural distortion. CONCLUSION: Of the radiographic changes prompting an additional biopsy, development of a new mass (38%) and new calcifications (33%) had the highest PPV for invasive progression. Close imaging follow-up should be a critical component for patients undergoing monitoring for DCIS.


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